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Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is arguably the preferred method of thermal analysis for freeze drying. DSC measures the heat flow in and out of a sample over a temperature range compared against a reference pan which is usually empty. Traditionally heat flow is plotted against time but, in order to make it easier to interpret it is often plotted against temperature (see figures 1-2 below).
DSC provides useful data for storage applications for a variety of materials as well as the limit temperature for use of materials in a range of applications. These data include: melting (Tm, Teu), freezing, crystallisation and thermal transitions such as the glass transition (Tg’). They play a critical part in product development in a variety of industries such as fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology.
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