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Freeze dried cakes: Where is the water?

by biopharma-admin in App notes & Scientific posters, Intelligent Freeze Drying

Water may be present in a variety of “forms” – free, adsorbed, chmically bound, hydration shells (e.g. of proteins), water of crystallisation, not all of which may be directly linked to the activity or stability of the product in question. The current established water detection methods, Karl Fischer titration and thermo-gravimetric analysis, do not necessarily allow the operator to distinguish between one form of water and another. In this study a number of freeze dried cakes were analysed ranging from purely amorphous to completely crystalline, using both KF and Frequency Modulated Spectroscopy (FMS). The aim is to understand the relationship between moisture measured by KF / FMS and the product/water interactions within a freeze-dried product.

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